Progress Test - POLITICS AND CURRENT AFFAIRS / WAR AND CONFLICT
Look at the clues below, and form defining or non-defining relative clauses. Omit the relative pronoun where possible:
- Jane loves spinach. Many people hate spinach. ....................................
- I wanted to see a doctor. The doctor was ill. ....................................
- There were a lot of people at the wedding. I had known most of them for years. ....................................
- Computers are very useful. They are machines which help with your work. ....................................
- I’ve bought new shoes for you. Have you seen them? ....................................
Grammar 2 (5 marks) Make one sentence from the two given, forming an –ing or an –ed clause:
- This man is my favourite actor. He was playing a leading role. ....................................
- Some sportsmen achieve success. They work very hard. ....................................
- The room was painted last summer. It is now blue. ....................................
- The girl is singing in the street. Do you know her? ....................................
- There was a big argument yesterday. It was unleashed by my father’s comments about politics. ....................................
Listening (10 marks) [brak nagrania - wymagana zmiana polecenia]
You will hear fragments of President George W. Bush's speech about the state of the country, delivered on January 31st, 2006. Before you listen, read the statements below and, while listening, decide whether they are true (T) or false (F). You will hear the recording twice:
Abroad, our nation is committed to a historic, long-term goal -- we seek the end of tyranny in our world. Some dismiss that goal as misguided idealism. In reality, the future security of America depends on it. On September the 11th, 2001, we found that problems originating 7,000 miles away could bring murder and destruction to our country. Dictatorships shelter terrorists, and feed resentment and radicalism, and seek weapons of mass destruction. Democracies replace resentment with hope, respect the rights of their citizens and their neighbours, and join the fight against terror. Every step toward freedom in the world makes our country safer -- so we will act boldly in freedom's cause.
No one can deny the success of freedom, but some men fight against it. And one of the main sources of reaction and opposition is radical Islam. Terrorists like bin Laden are serious about mass murder -- and all of us must take their declared intentions seriously.
In a time of testing, we cannot find security by retreating within our borders. If we were to leave these attackers alone, they would not leave us alone. They would simply move the battlefield to our own shores. There is no peace in retreat. And there is no honor in retreat. By allowing radical Islam to work its will, we would signal to all that we no longer believe in our own ideals, but our enemies and our friends can be certain: The United States will not retreat from the world, and we will never surrender to evil.
We remain on the offensive in Afghanistan, where a fine President and a National Assembly are fighting terror while building the institutions of a new democracy. We're on the offensive in Iraq, with a clear plan for victory.
Our work in Iraq is difficult because our enemy is brutal, but that brutality has not stopped the dramatic progress of a new democracy. In less than three years, the nation has gone from dictatorship to liberation, to a constitution, to national elections.
The road of victory is the road that will take our troops home. But those decisions will be made by our military commanders, not by politicians in Washington, D.C.
PRESIDENT GEORGE W. BUSH'S ADDRESS BEFORE A JOINT SESSION OF THE CONGRESS ON THE STATE OF THE UNION, January 31, 2006 (fragments)
Read the following text about the conflict in Northern Ireland, then match the paragraphs (A-J) with the appropriate headings (1-10) below the text.
- There is peace, but an uneasy one. While the bombs and bullets have been generally quiet, people are still being murdered by renegade groups of paramilitaries. There is still tension.
- Most people see the conflict in Northern Ireland as a simple Catholic versus Protestant affair, but it is also between those who wish Northern Ireland to remain in the UK, called Unionists, and those who want a united Ireland, called Nationalists.
- It is very important to remember that not every Catholic wants a united Ireland and not every Protestant wants to be British. The terms Catholic/Nationalist and Protestant/Unionist are often used interchangeably, but this is not a strictly correct division.
- Also involved are the various armed groups called Paramilitaries, both Nationalist and Unionist, the most famous of which is the Irish Republican Army (IRA).
- It is a mix of religion and politics that has roots going back four hundred years. The Protestants in Northern Ireland were given land in the counties of the old Irish province of Ulster by successive kings of England to help control the rebellious Irish, who were Catholic. Later, in 1922, after the War of Independence, most of Ireland became independent and formed the Republic of Ireland, but the British refused to return the six counties of Ulster, as there was a Protestant majority there who wished to remain in the UK. They feared that if they joined a united Ireland, they would be discriminated against by the Catholic majority (Catholics form about 70 per cent of the whole island). Unfortunately, the opposite happened: the Catholic minority in the North was discriminated against by the Protestant majority there.
- Northern Ireland had its own Parliament until 1972, when Westminster abolished it. During the fifty years of its existence, Protestants ruled Northern Ireland exclusively. No Catholic was allowed to join the Unionist parties or hold senior positions like those of a judge or a senior police officer. This, understandably, caused resentment amongst Catholics, and, in the 1960s, the Civil Rights movement arose in Northern Ireland to fight for equal rights for Catholics.
- When the civil rights marches were attacked by Protestant mobs with help from the police force, the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), the IRA began a campaign of violence in Northern Ireland – and sometimes on mainland Britain – to re-unify the six counties of Ulster with the Republic of Ireland.
- The Belfast Agreement, more commonly known as the Good Friday Agreement, was signed by all the main parties in Northern Ireland, as well as the British and Irish governments, on Good Friday, 10th April 1998. It was passed by around 90% of the people of Ireland in a referendum later that year.
- It says, first and foremost, that Northern Ireland will remain part of the United Kingdom until a majority decides otherwise. An elected Legislative Assembly has been set up to run the day-to-day affairs of Northern Ireland, though London will still be in charge of taxes, foreign affairs and so on. Very significantly, any decision must be made by a majority of both Unionist and Nationalist members to prevent the Protestant majority passing any laws the Catholic minority doesn’t like, since this was the original cause of the present conflict.
- It depends on whom you ask. Supporters of the Agreement say it has brought an end to the armed campaign of the IRA and other paramilitary organisations. The minority against the Agreement argue, however, that people who should be in jail have gone free and have even been granted ministerial posts.
Source: “Northern Ireland: is the conflict over?” (fragments) by Paul Williams (The World of English no. 1/2002)
- The IRA in action
- More than religion
- New legislation to prevent discrimination
- Paramilitaries of both sides count too
- Has it worked?
- A look at history
- Is the conflict over?
- Not an easy division
- A long awaited agreement
- Ćwiczenie 5 aqm