Lesson 4 - R&W, Culture - WAR AND CONFLICT
Read the clues and complete the crossword:
1. A fight or struggle
5. Materials that can explode
6. Soldiers who fight on foot
7. Less than a major
1. He listens only to a general
2. If you want to take part in amphibious assaults, join the ...
3. The various ways of sending information
4. A plane
Do you know any charity organisations? What do you think about their work? How do they help people? Where do they get their money from?
Make sentences with the following words:
natural disasters, war victims, orphans, refugees, donate, humanitarian aid
Read the information below about several well-known charity organisations that operate worldwide . Then decide whether the statements below the text are true (T) or false (F):
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRC) is permanently present in over 60 countries and conducts operations in about 80. Essential support for its field operations is provided from its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. Selected programs:
A Field hospitalin northern Kenya cared for almost 40,000 victims of the conflict in southern Sudan. Now the situation in Sudan has changed, the hospital has been handed over to the Kenyan government, to serve local people. The West Bank: As a result of Israel’s building of the West Bank Barrier, many families experience difficulties with access to jobs and farmland. The ICRC’s projects help them make a better living.
Lebanon/Israel: The ICRC is sending convoys with aid despite the continued heavy bombing. At the same time, it is calling on all sides of the conflict to immediately cease military attacks, as the situation in southern Lebanon remains extremely difficult for civilians. Large numbers of people are still leaving their homes and heading north or leaving the country altogether, either by sea or by road to neighbouring Syria.
CARITAS for Children promotes adoption, and supports the health, education, and welfare of orphaned and abandoned children worldwide . CARITAS works with Catholic Religious Orders that directly provide on location care and services to needy children.
The Upgrading of an Orphanage in Jaroslaw, Poland – It is currently in desperate need of funding for an upgrade and expansion to enable the Sisters to continue their work with autistic and disabled children.
Rebuild Providence Cheshire Home in Uganda – The first project was Providence Home built in 1928. The birth of a handicapped child was then viewed as a sign of "wrongdoing " by the family, and crippled children were kept hidden for fear of disgrace. The Sisters’ exemplary work, providing handicapped children and adults with the education and skills needed to become productive, has been seriously set back by a recent fire. Both the replacement of the destroyed building and equipment for training is necessary.
An AIDS Prevention Project by Young Franciscans in Uganda – The Young Franciscans of Uganda Youth Group have a project to help prevent AIDS by changing the behaviour patterns in youths. This peer developed initiative requires trainers for providing training, instructional materials, and full-time administrative support to function effectively, and to help prevent AIDS spreading amongst young people.
The Polish Humanitarian Organisation created by Janina Ochojska runs the following programs:
Emergency: Its aim is to quickly provide substantial help to the victims of natural disasters or armed conflicts.
Field Missions: These are located in areas of long-lasting crisis such as Chechnya. The aim of the program is to provide substantial help leading to the restoration of normality.
The Wooden Puppet Campaign: The PHO funds provide warm meals for the poorest children in Poland.
East: PHO helps the victims of structural poverty in the countries of the former Soviet Union.
Refugee Counselling Centre: The Centre helps foreigners who are seeking refugee status and, helps refugees in their integration into society.
Humanitarian Education Program: The PHO works towards an open and helpfulsociety.
Local programs: The PHO's Regional Offices in Cracow, Lodz and Torun run programs that benefit local communities.
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Writing a leaflet
Write a leaflet encouraging people to give money to charity. Choose one of the organisations above and encourage the readers to support its work generally or one of the projects specifically (you can make up a specific project!). Try to be as convincing as possible. Before you write, study the tips below:
A good leaflet should be clear and easy to read. It needs to attract people’s attention.
- Start with a big heading.
- Use graphical symbols (e.g. bullet points) to make the leaflet clearer.
- Add photos or drawings.
- Write a catchy and informative phrase/slogan as a heading.
- State briefly what you want to achieve by means of this leaflet (advertise, sell, encourage, persuade etc.).
- Provide convincing but rather brief arguments to support your point (for this leaflet, photos showing war or poverty could be used).
- Encourage the readers to take appropriate action (in this case, to help the victims/the needy by donating money).
War and conflict in literature
Many British and American writers and poets have written about war, especially having experienced it themselves. One exception to the latter point is a 19th century American author Stephen Crane who never saw any war, but it was so vivid in his imagination that he wrote an excellent and highly praised war novel The Red Badge of Courage. In the 20th century, some of the best fiction – also on the topic of war – was written by Ernest Hemingway, with titles such as For Whom The Bell Tolls, Farewell To Arms, or The Sun Also Rises. British literature is especially abundant in poems written about the 1st World War by Edwin Muir, Wilfred Owen, William Butler Yeats and Robert Graves.
Read the fragment of the poem below. You do not need to understand every single word, but pay special attention to the following words and phrases:
die as cattle (line 1)
monstrous anger of the guns (line 2)
rifles’ rapid rattle (line 3)
no prayers no bells (line 5)
the shrill, demented choirs of wailing shells (line 7)
Wilfred Owen Anthem For Doomed Youth (a fragment)
What passing-bells for these who die as cattle?
Only the monstrous anger of the guns.
Only the stuttering rifles’ rapid rattle
Can pattern out their hasty orisons.
No mockeries for them; no prayers no bells,
Nor any voice of mourning save the choirs, --
The shrill, demented choirs of wailing shells;
And bugles calling for them from sad shires.
Their flowers the tenderness of patient minds,
And each slow dusk a drawing-down of blinds.