Lesson 4 - R&W, Culture - SUPERNATURAL?
Go down and across to find at least 12 words connected with the supernatural:
Confessions of a Star Psychic
Read the text about Keith Harary, an expert in explaining the inexplicable.
Keith "Blue" Harary was a hot young psychic, sought after by treasure hunters, stockbrokers and spies. Then he began to question his own extraordinary abilities.
Some sentences have been removed from the passage. Put them back into the correct gaps.
Pay special attention to the highlighted words:
Most of us have encountered the eerie or inexplicable: a dream that foretold the future so precisely it appeared psychic, a sudden intense connection to a distant friend at the moment he faced death, a chance meeting so improbable it seemed preordained. 1. __________________ Sitting across from my wife, I suddenly felt she was going to die. There was nothing apparently wrong with her and she'd been given a clean bill of health at her last checkup only four months before. After I convinced her to go for another exam two days later, however, she was diagnosed with ovarian cancer, a disease that usually progresses without noticeable symptoms until it turns deadly. She was lucky, her doctors explained. Her tumor was discovered and removed before it could spread.
"How could you have known she had cancer?" her oncologist asked. "Are you some kind of psychic?"
I didn't know she had cancer, of course. 2. __________________________ . In fact, although it might surprise those familiar with my unusual reputation, I don't claim, at least these days, to have any special extrasensory abilities. But the doctor's first question—how had I known?—is one that I just may be able to answer.
How can we access information seemingly beyond the reach of inference or sensory perception? 3. __________________________It has also been pivotal in my personal career—in my younger days as a reputed psychic participating in some of the most publicized parapsychology experiments of the last century, and more recently, as a scientist with expertise in cognitive psychology, personality and altered states of consciousness. Despite more than a hundred years of research, this question remains controversial and unresolved, although the distinctly non-mystical realms of neurology, physics and mathematics may play a role.
The first person to subject psychic claims to statistical tests was Duke University researcher J.B. Rhine, who pioneered controlled experiments on what he termed extrasensory perception (ESP), later known as psi. Rhine adopted the term parapsychology and asked whether ESP was more than a matter of chance. 4. _______________________ ."Senders" focused on randomly shuffled cards marked with symbols: star, cross, circle, wavy lines or square. "Receivers" guessed at the symbol in the sender's mind. By 1940, after 33 experiments and nearly a million trials, Rhine said he'd found an overall effect. But the evidence was inconsistent, and mainstream scientists were not convinced.
Seeking more compelling results, the next generation of parapsychologists tried to induce psi through altered states of consciousness like dreams and sensory deprivation. 5. __________________________
Researchers weren't the only people intrigued by the possibility of psi, of course. 6.___________________ . Hoping to gain advantage on the world stage, they cobbled together a million dollars a year over the course of 20 years for a classified program eventually revealed as the Stargate project. Given my background, I was asked to consult along with reputed psychic superstars Hella Hammid and Ingo Swann.
Almost every day, we were taken to a stark white room at the renowned Menlo Park, California, think tank, Stanford Research Institute International (SRI). 7.________________ . We focused on targets from foreign government offices to clandestine weapons projects until impressions flowed through our minds.
In terms of my Valentine's Day experience, there were probably subtle clues to my wife's ovarian cancer. 8. _______________________. So at least suggests Paul Lewicki, a cognitive psychologist at the University of Tulsa—some differences in her speech or appearance that were too complex to consciously process. "The human mind can't interpret beyond two or three variables on a conscious level," says Lewicki, "but the unconscious can."
9. ______________________ . Consider how phenomena at the frontiers of physics can look similar to the paranormal. In a process Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," two fundamental particles that have interacted become "entangled" and immediately correlate their actions no matter how far they are separated. 10. _________________________. It seems reminiscent of the kind of information transfer parapsychologists attribute to ESP. Whether this or any other quirk of physics is related to paranormal claims remains unknown. In the end, we may discover that experiences we think of as "psychic" exist, but their foundation may turn out to be grounded in the natural world and the human brain.
My wife, after all, didn't die.
Based on the article by: Keith Harary Ph.D.
- It may have been something I learned from previous situations in which she wasn't feeling well.
- That’s why they recruited those considered capable of delivering consistently better results—in other words, psychics.
- In my own case, a foreboding swept over me on Valentine's Day in the year 2000 at an Italian restaurant in San Francisco.
- That question has driven the entire field of psychical research, known in contemporary parlance as parapsychology.
- There is so much we still don't know.
- There, acting as veritable psychic spies, we used the free response technique called "remote viewing".
- I only felt the sudden, alarming sense of her impending death.
- Rhine's experiments were simple.
- In this strange effect of physics, the information passing between them isn't even limited by the speed of light.
- The concept was also especially attractive to a tight circle in the intelligence community and the government.
- Ćwiczenie 3 aqm
Look at these two fragments from the passage:
A foreboding swept over me on Valentine's Day in the year 2000 at an Italian restaurant in San Francisco. Sitting across from my wife, I suddenly felt she was going to die. There was nothing apparently wrong with her and she'd been given a clean bill of health at her last checkup only four months before. After I convinced her to go for another exam two days later, however, she was diagnosed with ovarian cancer, a disease that usually progresses without noticeable symptoms until it turns deadly. She was lucky, her doctors explained. Her tumor was discovered and removed before it could spread.
Consider how phenomena at the frontiers of physics can look similar to the paranormal. In a process Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," two fundamental particles that have interacted become "entangled" and immediately correlate their actions no matter how far they are separated. In this strange effect of physics, the information passing between them isn't even limited by the speed of light. It seems reminiscent of the kind of information transfer parapsychologists attribute to ESP.
- Ćwiczenie 4 aqm
“No phenomenon is a phenomenon until it is an observed phenomenon" Niels Bohr.
A full descriptive composition about a phenomenon should include, similar to other kinds of descriptive compositions:
- an introduction > setting the scene, stating the topic
- a main body > a description of the sequence of events and people/animals/objects involved
- a conclusion > describing the final results, referring to consequences, giving possible explanations about the nature of the phenomenon
Fill in the gaps in the text, using the words from the box below:
|past, chronological, present, time|
- Information should be given in 1……. order.
- To make the order of events clear, use 2…... words, such as at first, then, during, finally, etc.
- When describing a phenomenon which is regularly observed, we generally use 3…. tenses.
- When reporting a phenomenon we witnessed, we generally use 4…….. tenses.
Using the hints given below, write a 130 - 160 word description of (imaginary) ghost sightings at Scary Castle, which are often witnessed by inquisitve ghost hunters. You will present your composition to the teacher during the next lesson:
- the castle > secluded, in ruin, rarely visited by tourists, reputation of being hunted?
- the ghost > appears regularly, at midnight, dark figure, lurking in the shadows?
- sounds > scary laughter, howling, crying, whispering, footsteps, banging?
- smells > sulphury, musty, flowery?
- witnesses’ reactions> curiosity, shock, panic?
- possible explanations > spirit, hallucination, prank?
URBAN MYTHS ON THE INTERNET
How ordinary people can protect themselves when using the Internet?
Pranksters have been using e-mail to fool gullible people for years using a particular sort of incorrect information: deliberate hoaxes. A hoax is a mischievous trick, especially one based on a made-up story. There are two major kinds of hoaxes circulating on the Internet: urban myths and false information about viruses. The archives in the Urban Myths Web site are full of hilarious hoaxes, some of which have been circulating for years.
- Key indicators that a message is a hoax:
- use of exclamation marks (no official warning uses them);
- use of lots of UPPERCASE text (typical of youngsters);
- misspellings and bad grammar;
- no date of origination or expiration;
- inclusion of words like “yesterday” when there is no date on the message;
- references to official-sounding sources (e.g., Microsoft, CIAC, CERT) but no specific document URLs for details (URLs for the general site don't count);
- no valid digital signature from a known security organization;
- requests to circulate widely (no such request is made in official documents);
- claims that someone is counting the number of e-mail messages containing copies of the hoax;
- threats about dire consequences if someone “breaks the chain” by refusing to forward the message;
- claims of monetary rewards that, upon reflection, make no sense (e.g., the Disney organization will send you $5,000 – for forwarding an e-mail message);
- use of complicated technical language such as “n-th dimensional complexity infinite control loops” that doesn’t make sense;
- claims of damage to computer hardware from viruses or other computer software.
M. E. Kabay, PhD, CISSP http://www2.norwich.edu/mkabay/cyberwatch/06myths.htm