Lesson 4 - R&W, Culture - RELIGION AND BELIEFS

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  • Ćwiczenie 1 aqm


In the previous lesson you had a chance to look at the marriage ceremony from five different religions. Do you remember these religions? Write them down in alphabetical order:

  1. ______________
  2. ______________
  3. ______________
  4. ______________
  5. ______________

Now think about how many other religions or religious groups you are able to name? How many religions are there in the world altogether? Complete the sentence below choosing from the numbers given.

9 / 19 / 25 / 135 / 220 / 270

According to World Christian Encyclopedia, there are ________ major world religions which are subdivided into a total of _______ large religious groups, and many smaller ones.

Quoted after: http://www.religioustolerance.org/worldrel.htm


Read the text below which compares religious beliefs in the USA and worldwide, then choose the best answer

Definition of religion:

We define religion very broadly: "Religion is any specific system of belief(s) about a deity or deities, often involving rituals, a code of ethics, a philosophy of life, and a worldview." Thus we consider Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Native American Spirituality, and Neo-paganism to be religions. We also include agnosticism or atheism as religions, because they also contain a "belief about a deity" – their belief is that they do not know whether a deity exists, or they have no knowledge of God, or they sincerely believe that God does not exist.

Religious diversity:

The United States has been described as the most religiously diverse country in the world. In spite of this, it is relatively free of religiously motivated violence. Some observers believe this is because of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution which guarantees: - Separation between church and state. - Freedom for adults to follow their own religious beliefs without oppression or discrimination. All of the world's major religions are practised throughout the U.S. However, the percentage of followers of a given religion in the USA is often quite different from the corresponding value elsewhere in the world. For example: About 75% of American adults identify themselves with Christianity; only 33% of the world's population is Christian. About 2% of Americans regard themselves as Muslim; the corresponding worldwide figure is 20%.

Estimating the size of each religious group:

Listed in the table below are the major religions, in order of decreasing numbers of followers in the USA. These numbers are based on the American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS). This was a telephone survey of 50,281 American households conducted in 2001 between February and June. Often, the religions of both partners or spouses were recorded, so the sample size is probably about 75,000. This is unusually high, compared to most public opinion surveys which only sample about 1,000 people. They were asked the simple question: "What is your religion, if any?" Various almanacs and religious encyclopaedias list some data that are very different from the ARIS survey data. The former are generally based on information provided by individual denominations -- data that is often not particularly reliable. Some faith groups count as a member anyone who has been baptised, others count only active members. Some include only adult members, others count children as well. Finally, some groups refuse to release membership data.

Comparison of religions in the U.S. and the world:

The numbers of U.S. followers which are shown (in brackets) were taken from the World Almanac and Book of Facts 2005. The lack of agreement between the ARIS and Almanac are quite remarkable for some faiths.

ReligionNumber of followers in the U.S. (millions)% of U.S. populationNumber of followers in the world (millions)% of world populationSacred text(s)
Christianity159.0376.5%2,069.932.9%Holy Bible
No religious affiliation27.4913.284.312.5None
Judaism2.83 (6.15)1.4%14.60.2%Torah, Tanach, & Talmud
Islam1.10 (4.6)0.51,254.219.9%Qur'an & Hadith
Buddhism1.08 (2.9)0.5373.05.9%The Tripitaka & Sutras
Hinduism0.77 (1.1)0.4837.313.3%Bhagavad-Gita, Upanishads, & Rig Veda
Native American beliefs0.10<0.1%Oral tradition

Based on a total U.S. adult population of 207,980,000 -- persons who have reached their 18th birthday at the time of the survey, and a world population of 6,288 million.

Adapted from: http://www.religioustolerance.org/compuswrld.htm

  • Ćwiczenie 4 aqm
  • Ćwiczenie 5 aqm

Writing a description

Write a description of a religious ritual or ceremony. Use some vocabulary from lessons 52-54. You may choose to write about a marriage ceremony in one of the religions previously mentioned.

Before you write, study the guidelines below:

    To make your description interesting:
  • use the past continuous to describe what was happening at the beginning of the ceremony (e.g. The bride and the groom were waiting in front of the church.)
  • use a new paragraph for each new element/part of the ceremony you are going to describe
  • use linking words, e.g. at the beginning, then, after that, next, finally, in the end
  • use some adjectives to make your writing more vivid and interesting (e.g. brilliant, beautiful, exceptional, funny, boring etc.)

FTP services

Fill in the gaps in the text below with the words from the box immediately below:

desktop / directory / download / firewalls / functionality / management / protocol / server / transferring / troubleshooting

The File Transfer Protocol, commonly known as FTP, as the name suggests, allows files to be transferred between a (1) _______ and a client across a TCP/IP network. Every major (2) _______ operating system supports the FTP protocol. Windows NT includes two separate programs for (3) _______ files with the FTP. The FTP provides for additional (4) _______ that the HTTP protocol does not have: file and directory (5) _______. If you work on the Internet, you have to work with the FTP protocol. Network administrators have to understand the (6) _______ well enough to configure their routers, servers and/or (7) _______. The FTP is a very understandable protocol because all communications are in plain English text, so (8) _______ is a pleasure. Many administrators may wish to automate certain tasks that use the FTP protocol. For example, an administrator may wish to write a script that will (9) _______ several files from an FTP server on a regular basis or even create a script that checks for updated files in a (10) _______ and downloads them as needed.