Lesson 4 - R&W, Culture - GEOGRAPHY
In 1995, a Polish traveller and explorer, Marek Kaminski, managed to reach both the North and South Poles, the first person to do so within one year. Do you think you have what it takes to become a polar explorer? Before you contact Marek Kaminski at his site, http://www.marek.kaminski.org , do the quiz below writing your answers in the spaces provided. Your answers will be marked as CORRECT or INCORRECT, but won’t be corrected:
- Ćwiczenie 1 aqm
Read the brief text below about Roald Amundsen, and find the correct answers to the questions from the polar quiz that you failed to answer correctly:
Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (1872-1928), a Norwegian polar explorer, was the first person to reach the South Pole. He served (1897–99) as first mate on the Belgica (under the Belgian Adrien de Gerlache) in an expedition to the Antarctic, and he commanded the Gjöa in the Arctic in the first negotiation of the Northwest Passage (1903–6). He then purchased Fridtjof Nansen’s ship Fram, and prepared to drift towards the North Pole and then finish the journey by sledge. The news that Robert E. Peary had anticipated him in reaching the North Pole caused Amundsen to consider going south. He was successful in reaching the South Pole on December 14th, 1911, after a dash by dog team and skis from the Bay of Whales (an inlet of the Ross Sea). He arrived there just 35 days before Robert F. Scott. In the course of these expeditions, he added much valuable scientific and geological information to the knowledge of Antarctica. In 1918, back in the Arctic, Amundsen set out to negotiate the Northeast Passage in the Maud. After two winters, he arrived at Nome, the first person after N. A. E. Nordenskjold to sail along the whole northern coast of Europe and Asia. Amundsen then turned to air exploration. He and Lincoln Ellsworth, in 1925, failed to complete a flight across the North Pole, but, the next year, in the dirigible Norge, built and piloted by Umberto Nobile, they succeeded in flying over the pole and the hitherto unexplored regions of the Arctic Ocean north of Alaska. In 1928, when Nobile crashed in the Italia, Amundsen set out on a rescue attempt that cost him his life. Although credit for the first flight over the North Pole has long been given to Richard Byrd, notes from Byrd's diary suggest that he may not have actually reached the pole, in which case Amundsen and Nobile would hold that distinction. (adapted from: The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2006, Columbia University Press)
WRITING A DESCRIPTION OF A PLACE
A composition describing a place should consist of:
- an introduction in which you give its exact location and state the reason for choosing it;
- a main body in which you describe both the general aspects of the place (i.e. landscape, buildings, landmarks, etc) and the specific ones (i.e. sights to see, places to go, things to do etc.)
- a conclusion in which you express your feelings or opinions about the place. (based on: Victoria Evans, Successful Writing .Upper-Intermediate, Express Publishing, 1998)
III. Other popular “enthusiastic” adjectives can be found in the two brief descriptions below. Find them and compare your answer with the answer provided below.
“Toronto is a truly impressive city. It has numerous sights and a variety of things to do. It is simply ideal for people who enjoy active and lively holidays.
On arrival, visitors are greeted by impressive architecture. One place especially worth seeing is the CN Tower, which is one of the tallest buildings in the world. You can enjoy dining in the revolving restaurant at the top of the tower while gazing at the spectacular view of the city. Another sight that shouldn’t be missed is the castle-like Casa Loma, built at the turn of the century.”
“Situated on the two rivers near the Yorkshire Moors, York is a fascinating place to explore. Surrounded by high, medieval stone walls, the old part of the city is like a journey back in time. As you walk through the busy, narrow streets, you can admire breathtaking examples of medieval and Gothic architecture.
York has many things to offer. There are museums of all kinds, including a railway museum, and plenty of charming tea-rooms, coffee shops, pubs and restaurants for tired visitors.
(adapted from: Virginia Evans, Successful Writing. Upper-Intermediate, Express Publishing, 1998)
V. When you use a lot of adjectives to describe something, you may run into the problem of their order. Study the rule governing adjective order in English before you do the next task:
Adjective Order (after: Virginia Evans, FCE Use of English, Express Publishing.2000)
- Ćwiczenie 8 aqm
Write a 150-180 word description of an interesting place that you have visited, and hand it in to your teacher during the next class (Class hours 12-13). Make sure you follow the prescribed format and use the hints given above. (HOME ASSIGNMENT)
Look at this geographical chart and fill in the blanks:
WAYS OF DEALING WITH SPAM
Read the fragment of the article below, paying special attention to the underlined words and phrases:
Okopipi leaps in where Blue Security left off
By Eric B. Parizo, News Editor
25 May 2006 | SearchSecurity.com
A new independent group called Okopipi intends to pick up where Blue Security left off by creating an open source, peer-to-peer software program that automatically sends "unsubscribe" messages to spammers and/or reports them to the proper authorities.
Though only a few weeks old, the group is already the product of a merger between the Okopipi team and a similar effort known as Black Frog. Brian Cook, an Okopipi volunteer based in central Florida, said both factions formed on message boards hours after the demise of Blue Security.
Cook said the group began organizing formally a week ago via wiki and has so far recruited about 160 independent programmers. He said these individuals are already hard at work dissecting the open source code from Blue Security's Blue Frog product, and many are eager to initiate another relentless assault against spammers.
Cook said Okopipi, named after a poisonous speckled frog found in South America, is not intended to serve as a spam filter, but can be used in conjunction with one. By automatically sending opt-out requests to Web sites referenced in received spam messages, he said it won't reveal users' email addresses, but will tell spammers how to cleanse their lists of Okopipi users.
While still in its early design phase, the software is expected to pull its data from users' spam reports. This processing will take place on client machines and will be sent to a series of main servers later, the addresses of which will be hidden to prevent a denial-of-service attack.
Linking the clients with the main servers will be a set of handling servers. Hundreds or thousands of these units -- dedicated machines and Web sites or small businesses donating bandwidth -- will collect spam data and pass it on to a select few handling servers that will periodically open a secure connection with the main servers to upload information. Each distributed client and each handler only communicates with a finite number of handling servers, which is intended to prevent an attacker from taking down the entire system.
"At most, a spammer will be able to take down a bunch of handlers, because each client only knows about a handful of handlers -- when there are hundreds (maybe even thousands) of other handlers serving other clients," said project organizers on its wiki. "We hope that spammers won't be able to take down the main servers, because no one will know about them."