Lesson 4 - R&W, Culture - DREAMS

Z Studia Informatyczne
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Before reading the text try to answer the following question:

What do these things have in common? penicillin, radar, Teflon, artificial sweeteners, chewing gum and Post-it Notes?


The text you are going to read is about serendipity
Serendipity – it is he ability to make pleasant and unexpected discoveries entirely by chance; Serendipity plays a great role in scientific discoveries as almost all great discoveries were made by chance.

Read the text about the History of Nylon and put the missing sentences into the story. There is one extra sentence that you don’t need.

Cold Drawing Does the Trick; the History of Nylon
There is a saying that „it is better to be lucky than smart“. The story of nylon seems to bear out this saying about luck. Wallace Hume Carothers was brought to Du Pont to direct their new basic chemical research program. 1)...... such as cellulose, silk, and rubber, and to produce synthetic materials like them. Although by 1934 his group has contributed valuable fundamental knowledge in these areas, he had just about decided that their efforts to produce a silk-like synthetic fiber has failed, when an accident occurred during some horseplay among his chemists in the laboratory. 2).......... As a result nylon (a polyamide, having a structure similar to that of silk) had been made but seemed not to have any especially useful properties. It was put aside on the shelf without patenting.
Meanwhile, while working with one of these softer materials it was noted that if a small ball of such a polymer was gathered on the end of a glass stirring rod and drawn out of the mass, 3................. Then, one day a group of researchers tried to see how far they could stretch one of these samples, and they took a little ball on a stirring rod and ran down the hall and stretched it out into a string. It was in doing this that they noticed the very silky appearance of the extended strands and 4.).................... They went back to the polyamides that they had put aside and found that these fibers, too, could be „cold drawn“ to increase their tensile strength so much that they made excellent textiles. 5)................. However, the horseplay incident led to a discovery of worldwide economic and social importance only because of the insight that the chemists displayed in recognizing the scientific implications of the appearance and physical properties of the stretched strands of polyester they played with.
6)............ . The Du Pont exhibit graphically explained the chemical synthesis of nylon from „coal, air, and water“ and nearby was an attractive model in a gigantic glass „test tube“ displaying the new hose very visibly. 7.).............. Such sales were not to be repeated for very long, however, for war clouds were already gathering, and no sooner had the American woman become enamored of the new fabric than it was taken away for war applications, mainly parachute material. Not only 8.)............ but also women who had them were encouraged to turn them in to be converted into parachutes.
Adapted from Royston M. Roberts “Serendipity: Accidental Discoveries in Science” published by John Wiley &Sons, Inc. 1989

  1. it could be extended and became very silky in appearance.
  2. they realized that they were orienting the polymer molecules and increasing the strength of the product.
  3. The introduction of nylon at the 1939 New York World’s Fair was one of the most spectacular consumer events of all time.
  4. were there no new „nylons“ to be purchased,
  5. he never thought this would turned out to Du Pont most successful product ever.
  6. This accident turned the failure into the enormous success.
  7. This process discovered accidentally, produced the most important product Du Pont ever put on the market.
  8. When „nylons“ were first offered for sale in New York City on May 15, 1940, four million pairs of hose were sold in the first few hours.
  9. He initiated a program aimed at understanding the composition of natural polymers.

  • Ćwiczenie 1 aqm


WRITING: Discourse markers in written English

Discourse markers are used in written English to join the ideas together. They make the text more formal If you are not sure how to use these words here you will find helpful hints: Useful language:

  1. To bring up other points or aspects: as far as, regarding, as for, with regard to, only because
  2. To make contrasting points: yet, however, nevertheless, although, in spite of, despite, while, on the other hand, it is argued that, opponents of this view say there are people who oppose, contrary to what people believe, not only,
  3. To conclude: all in all, to sum up, in my opinion, in my view, to my mind, as a result
  4. To express reality: in fact, as a matter of fact, in practice, the fact is

While writing a discursive essay this seems to be the correct order in which to plan it:

  1. Introduction – state the topic
  2. Paragraph 2 & 3 – viewpoints and opposing arguments
  3. Summarize the topic in conclusion

In the sentences some expressions were written in bold. Replace them with synonymous words or phrases:

  1. Concerning the problem of homeless dogs RSCA should take more actions to protect them.
  2. However, children attending private schools are becoming snobbish as a result.
  3. Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that advantages far more outcast the disadvantages.
  4. As a matter of fact, he was completely innocent.
  5. It is argued, whether schools should be coeducational.
  6. In my opinion, roses are the most outstanding flowers.
  7. As far as work is concerned everybody should have an occupation.
  8. With regard to the health benefits of living in the country there are strong arguments for and against.
  9. I personally believe mobile phones are not indispensable in everyday life.
  10. In my view computers are the cause of frustration so common among young people.

Lesson based on Virginia Evans Successful Writing Upper-intermediate published by Express Publishing 2004, Unit 13 on Discursive Essays pp 79-81



Have you ever heard of MIND MAPPING? Well, Tony Buzan 1.......... is the originator of mind mapping teaches: `Learn how your brain learns rapidly and naturally and then learn anything else`. We've 2........... trained in two primary intelligences verbal and numerical which are wonderful. We’ve not been trained as 3.......... in the creative and innovative. To maximize function, the verbal, numerical, creative, and innovative skills must go together. If they don't, each 4........... suffers.
The Mind Map allows you 5…. use your verbal and numerical, plus adding the explosive power of your creative intelligence. People need to realize that, regardless of 6........... they've been taught to think, inside their brains they've been training 7........... birth to create Mind Maps!
We can make maximum use of our creative abilities in a way that is 8........... easy and natural by encouraging Radiant Thinking and expressing it through Mind Maps.
Buzan‘s work is partly based 9........... the explosion of brain research that has taken place since the late 1950s. His teaching generally divides up into: general awareness of the extensive capabilities and capacities 10........... the brain and its functions. Memory skills, reading skills, mind map note-taking, creativity, and how brain functions can be 11........... over time into old age.
Buzan developed Mind Mapping while at University out of frustration that traditional notes took 12........... so much time to create and review. As research indicated the brain responds 13........... to key words, images, colours, and direct association, mind mapping was discovered to be the best way a piece of paper could act as a technique for 14........... notes from a book or lecture. These ideas were refined into a simple 15........... of laws that one can follow.



  1. Start at the centre of the page with the most general image. (Have ready at least three coloured pens).
  2. Create your key words, symbols, codes and images.
  3. Use a lot of lines that stand out from the key words; make them thick at the beginning and then as you go down thinner.
  4. Put down all ideas that come to your mind (free thoughts). Try to create sub-branches.
  5. Don’t get stuck; just write what comes to your mind. You can fill in the blanks later.
  6. Keep going; don‘t stop.
  7. Each image or word should be put on its own line.
  8. Write in a clear way so you can read yourself.
  9. Be creative.
  10. Have fun and get involved.

Mind maps can be an excellent way to remember new things especially new words in a foreign language or to recall things you think you might forget.

Your task now is to create you own mind map. Choose one of the following topics.

  1. Computers
  2. English
  3. Eating

Here are the links to help your create your own map. http://www.mapyourmind.com http://wwwpeterrussell.com/MindMap. If you became interested in Map Mapping you can also visit his site http://www.BuzanCentres.com Bring your map to the class next time you come.

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