Guiding Principles on human organ and tissue transplantation
Organs and tissues (referred to in this text as "organs") may be removed from the bodies of _____A_____ and living persons for the purpose of transplantation only in accordance with the following Guiding Principles. Guiding principle 1: Organs may be removed from the bodies of deceased persons for the purpose of transplantation if: (A) any _____B______ required by law are obtained; and (B) there is no reason to believe that the deceased person objected to such removal, in the absence of any formal consent given during the person's lifetime. Guiding principle 2: Physicians determining that the death of a potential _____C_____ has occurred should not be directly involved in organ removal from the donor and subsequent transplantation procedures, or be responsible for the care of potential recipients of such organs. Guiding principle 3: Organs for transplantation should be removed preferably from the bodies of deceased persons. However, adult living persons may donate organs, but in general such donors should be genetically related to the recipients. Exceptions may be made in the case of transplantation of bone _____D_____ and other acceptable regenerative tissues. Guiding principle 3 (continued): An organ may be removed from the body of an adult living donor for the purpose of transplantation if the donor gives free consent. The donor should be free of any undue influence and pressure and _____E_____ informed to be able to understand and weigh the risks, benefits and consequences of consent. Guiding principle 4: No organ should be removed from the body of a _____F_____ minor for the purpose of transplantation. Exceptions may be made under national law in the case of regenerative tissues. Guiding principle 5: The human body and its parts cannot be the subject of _____G_____ transactions. Accordingly, giving or receiving payment (including any other compensation or reward) for organs should be prohibited. Guiding principle 6: Advertising the need for or availability of organs, with a view to offering or seeking payment, should be _____H_____. Guiding principle 7: It should be prohibited for _____I_____ and other health professionals to engage in organ transplantation procedures if they have reason to believe that the organs concerned have been the subject of commercial transactions. Guiding principle 8: It should be prohibited for any person or facility involved in organ _____J_____ procedures to receive any payment that exceeds a justifiable fee for the services rendered. Guiding principle 9: In the light of the principles of distributive justice and equity, donated organs should be made available to _____K_____ on the basis of medical need and not on the basis of financial or other considerations.
Black market organ trade is Baghdad’s new growth industry
Ali Hameed quit his job as a taxi driver because he no longer felt safe on Baghdad’s streets. Increasingly desperate for money to help him get married, he hit on a once-in-a-lifetime business opportunity - selling one of his kidneys.
Last week, in a shabby ward in the city’s Al Karama hospital, he lay bandaged on a bed, one kidney lighter and $1,400 (about £765) richer after a three-hour operation.
In a nearby room, his body similarly bandaged, lay the man who had paid for it - the other player in a grim new black market trade in organs that is one of Iraq’s few growth industries.
„I abandoned my taxi driving job because of the security situation,” Mr Hameed, 22, told The Sunday Telegraph. „I thought about joining the police or the army, but that is even more dangerous. There were no more options, so I decided to sell my kidney. I am still a young man, so I want to marry and begin a business.”
Mr Hameed received a good price for his kidney. Would-be buyers with an eye for a bargain can now pick up a new kidney for as little as $700, given the desperation of fit and healthy Iraqis for money.
In the main their customers are other Iraqis, for whom kidney problems are common thanks to decades of poor diet, water and medical care.
As news of the black market trade has spread, however, wealthier transplant „tourists” from around the Arab world have started flocking to Baghdad, attracted by the rock-bottom prices.
If car bombs, kidnappings and robberies are a deterrent, the price compares favourably to the $5,000 cost of a kidney on the black market in Turkey, or $3,000 in India. In Iraq, the operation itself typically costs $2,000. Even so, the risks are considerable. Baghdad’s hospitals are filthy and under-resourced.
While many medics disapprove of the trade outside their hospital, if a transplant patient turns up with a willing donor, they tend not to ask too many questions.
In 2001, the going rate for a donor was $2,000. The fact that the price has tumbled, some doctors say, suggests that Iraqis are even more desperate for money now than they were under Saddam.
„It wasn’t easy two or three years ago to find a donor,” said a senior nurse at another Baghdad hospital. „Now patients’ relatives need to make no big effort.”
Read the text about the video gesture control (VCG) system and decide whether the statements given below the text are true or false. Source: http://www.vividgroup.com
MANDALA® VIDEO GESTURE CONTROL (VGC) SYSTEM CONCEPT
Imagine a world where you are in control of the images and sounds that surround you. Vivid Group's Mandala® Video Gesture Control (VGC) system allows for suspension of disbelief by placing participants into computer generated landscapes, permitting interaction with icons and symbols within that world.
Vivid Group has successfully produced Mandala® VGC technology since 1986, enabling participants to be placed within a variety of entertaining and engaging computer generated realities. The Mandala® System combines the video image of the participant with an interactive virtual world where the state-of-the-art tracking system within the software reads the position of the body at all times, allowing for real-time movement and interaction with background and foreground graphics.
Mandala® VGC technology translates into a full-body unencumbered experience. Vivid Group employs this technology to create successful interactive exhibits worldwide, without the need for cumbersome head-mounted displays (HMD's) or data gloves. Vivid Group's patented technology stands alone on the cutting edge of VR entertainment and education.
TRUE or FALSE?
In VGC system participants are placed in computer generated landscapes and enter into interaction with icons and symbols within that world.
Vivid Group stopped producing Mandala® VGC technology in 1986.
The VGC software reads the position of the participant's body at all times so that real-time movement and interaction with background and foreground graphics are possible.
Vivid Group patented head-mounted displays (HMD's) and data gloves.