Lesson 2 - L&S, Functions, Pronunciation - POLITICS AND CURRENT AFFAIRS

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Grafika:politician.jpg
Demagogue: A politician who can rock the boat and persuade everyone else that they’re in a terrible storm.

What phrase is used to define a demagogue? What is it called?
Now think of a sentence about politician/s with a non-defining relative clause.
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Do you remember when and how we use defining and non-defining relative clauses?
If not, look back at the previous lesson.
If yes (congratulations!), you may proceed with this lesson.


Pre-listening
Look at the photo of Martin Luther King Jr. Have you heard of him before? Read the notes on segregation and the Civil Rights Movement in the USA.

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Racial segregation is characterised by the separation of people of different races in daily life when both are doing equal tasks, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the renting or purchase of a home. Segregation may be de jure (Latin, meaning "by law")—mandated by law—or de facto (also Latin, meaning "in fact"); de facto segregation may exist even illegally.

The Civil Rights Movement (CRM) in the United States (1954-1968) aimed at abolishing both public and private acts of racial discrimination against African Americans, particularly in the southern states of the USA. Initially non-violent in its nature (e.g. involving boycotts, marches, sit-ins, freedom rides, petition writing etc.), with Martin Luther King Jr. as its main leader (assassinated in 1965), by 1966, theCRM had given way to the Black Power Movement, which lasted from 1966 to 1975. It enlarged and gradually overshadowed the aims of the CRM to include the concepts of racial dignity, economic and political independence, and freedom from white authority.

While-listening
You will hear fragments of a speech delivered by Martin Luther King to a crowd of over 200,000 people gathered in Washington, D.C. on 28th August 1963. Read the statements below. As you listen, decide which are true (T) and which are false (F):


I Have A Dream


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Post-listening / Meaningful context
Read these sentences taken from the speech by Martin Luther King. How do you understand the phrases in bold? Provide brief explanations.

  1. Instead of honouring this sacred obligation, America has given the Negro people a bad check which has come back marked "insufficient funds."
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  2. We refuse to believe that there are insufficient funds in the great vaults of opportunity of this nation.
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  3. We cannot be satisfied as long as the Negro's basic mobility is from a smaller ghetto to a larger one.
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  4. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
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  5. I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the colour of their skin but by the content of their character.
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Personalisation
In the previous exercise, you had a close look at Martin Luther King’s ideas. Do you support his opinions? If so, how would you express your agreement? Put down the phrases you could use:
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If you disagree, write down the phrases that would help you express your views:
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Now read the useful phrases below:

Agreeing
I agree.
So do I.
Me too.

Me neither. (Agreeing about a negative idea.)
I don’t either. (Agreeing about a negative idea.)

You're/He’s (absolutely/definitely) right.
That's right.
Good idea.
I think that's a good idea.
I strongly agree with your/his views.
I support your/his ideas.

Disagreeing
I disagree.
I don't think so.
(No.) That's not right.
Yes, but...
(I'm sorry, but) I don't agree.
You are/He is definitely wrong.
You/He may be partly right, but...
I must disagree.


Preparation for speaking
Write a short paragraph expressing your agreement or disagreement towards some of Martin Luther King’s ideas (of your choice). Be prepared to deliver it orally (as a short speech) in class:


British versus American pronunciation

In both the UK and the USA, there are many regional differences as far as the usage of English is concerned. However, it is possible to point out certain differences between standard British and standard American language.

BritishAmerican
The pronunciation of final /-r/silentis pronounced e.g. junior, baker
Short and long A/a://a/ e.g. advance, mask, plant
There are also some differences which concern individual words only (not all words):
Stress differencesaddressaddress
advertisementadvertisement
cigarettecigarette
garagegarage
/a:/ and /ei/, e.g. tomato, potato, vase/a:/ /ei/
/i:/ and /ai/, e.g. anti-/i:/ /a:/
/i:/ and /ai/, e.g. either /ai/ /i:/
/ai/ and /ei/, e.g. geyser /ai/ /ei/
/a:/ and /e:/, e.g. clerk, derby /a:/ /e:/
lieutenantlef’tenəntlu:’tenənt
schedule‘∫edju:l‘skeduəl


[brak pliku dzwiekowego]
Now listen to the ten pairs of words below, and (without looking at the rules above!) try to decide which pronunciation is British and which American:


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