Lesson 2 - L&S, Functions, Pronunciation - MY FUTURE

From Studia Informatyczne

LISTENING

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You will hear two friends Mary and Peter talking about their plans. What are they talking about? Tick the right answers:

  1. Going together on holidays.

  2. Getting a job.

  3. Mary taking a post of a post doc.

  4. Difficulties in finding suitable accommodation.

  5. Wedding presents.

  6. The possibility of getting a diploma with distinction.

  7. Mary’s new boyfriend Mike.

  8. Moving to a new place.

  9. That IBM won’t give Peter a job.

  10. Peter’s preparing for a trip to the Moon.

Grafika:Audio icon.gif   Plans


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FUNCTIONS: DISCOURSE MARKERS IN SPOKEN ENGLISH

Discourse markers in speech are used in the similar way as in the written text mainly to join sentences into a coherent whole. We can use them to help explain a number of ideas. There are very many of them but we will look at functions which include: 1. contrasting two ideas eg. but then, but, but it is true 2. adding similar information eg. also, as well, not only 3. drawing conclusions eg. so, after all, it’s true that, this means that

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Put the discourse markers in brackets in the correct position in the sentences:

  1. Computer games can be violent and provoke violent behaviour, but they are unlikely to have the only influence on people’s behaviour. (so, in this sense)
  2. Most glossy magazines readers are women. Most articles have been written for them. (but, then it’s true that)
  3. Clubbing provides entertainment and the opportunity to make new friends. (also)
  4. DVDs are extremely popular. Far more money is spent on films on DVD now than on going to the cinema. (after all)
  5. A lot of people think that theatre is a useless entertainment. We know that theatre is an art form that enhances our enjoyment. (but now)

Answer

  1. So, in this sense computer games can be violent and provoke violent behaviour, but they are unlikely to have the only influence on people’s behaviour.
  2. Most glossy magazines readers are women. But, then it’s true that most articles have been written for them.
  3. Clubbing provides entertainment and also the opportunity to make new friends.
  4. DVDs are extremely popular. After all far more money is spent on films on DVD now than on going to the cinema.
  5. A lot of people think that theatre is a useless entertainment but now we know that theatre is an art form that enhances our enjoyment.

Pronunciation of selected abbreviations

In English abbreviations are usually made from the initial letters of the words in the phrase. Such abbreviations are pronounced like separate sounds for example BBC. The article in from of them depends on the pronunciation of the first letter of the abbreviation, an MP not a MP. However, some of them form separate words like UNESCO and are pronounced like proper names and do not have articles in front of them.

Listen to the pronunciation of these abbreviations. Try to repeat after the speaker. Note that some of them are pronounced like individual sounds when some of them form words. Notice what happens if they are pronounced as words:

  1. ID
  2. c/o
  3. UFO
  4. MP
  5. RSCPA
  6. NATO
  7. UN
  8. ASAP
  9. ie
  10. FAQ
  11. RAM
  12. ROM
  13. SMS
  14. eg
  15. VAT
  16. IOS
  17. MMS
  18. EMML
  19. MSG
  20. MBA

Now, look at these abbreviations again. Do you know what they stand for?

Answer

  1. ID –(Identity Document)
  2. c/o –(care of)
  3. a UFO – (an Unidentified Flying Object)
  4. an MP –(a Member of Parliament)
  5. the RSPCA – (the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals)
  6. NATO – (the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation)
  7. the UN – ( the United Nations Organization)
  8. ASAP – (as soon as possible)
  9. ie – (that is to say, in other words – id est)
  10. FAQ – (Frequently Asked Questions)
  11. RAM – (Random Access Memory)
  12. ROM – (Read Only Memory)
  13. SMS – (Short Message Service)
  14. eg - (for example – exempli gratia)
  15. VAT – (Value Added Tax)
  16. IOS – (Input/Output System)
  17. MMS – (Multimedia Message Service)
  18. EMML – (E-mail me later)
  19. MSG – (message)
  20. MBA– (Master of Business Administration)

Read these sentences and change the underlined abbreviations for their full names:

  1. Sorry Frank but I won’t be able to make it by 6pm. I’ll will come ASAP
  2. After graduation I’m considering taking an MBA studies.
  3. To Miss Jane Carland c/o Mr John Smithe.
  4. Poland became a member of the NATO in the 1990s.
  5. In this country a VAT tax for cigarettes is still 22%.
  6. I my opinion the CNN news at 10 pm is the most interesting.