Lesson 1 - Grammar - WAR AND CONFLICT

From Studia Informatyczne

  • Ćwiczenie 1 aqm

In each pair of sentences above, both have the same meaning, but the second sentence is shorter due to the use of a participle clause. Study the notes below.

  • We use –ing clauses to say what somebody or something is (or was) doing at a particular time:
    Do you know the man talking to Mary? (the man is talking to Mary)
    Who were those girls waiting at the station? (the girls were waiting at the station)
    I was alarmed by a dog barking. (a dog was barking)
  • When you are talking about things (and sometimes people), you can use an –ing clause to say what something does all the time, not just at a particular time, for example:
    The bridge joining the two banks of the river is very old. (the bridge joins the two banks of the river)
    We live in a large house overlooking the sea. (the house overlooks the sea)
    Can you think of the name of a colour beginning with “R”? (the name begins with “R”)
  • -ed clauses have a passive meaning:
    The woman injured in the car accident was taken to hospital. (the woman was injured in the accident)
    Some of the benches newly painted are still wet. (the benches have been painted)
    Note: Many irregular verbs have past participles that do not end in –ed, e.g. made, stolen etc.
    The police eventually found the jewellery stolen in the burglary. (the jewellery was stolen).
  • We often use –ing and –ed clauses after there is / there was etc.:
    There were some boys playing basketball in the schoolyard.
    Are there any patients waiting?
    There is a regiment of UN soldiers stationed in the city.


Make one sentence from the two given. Use the information in the second sentence to form an –ing clause. Sometimes the –ing clause goes in the middle, and sometimes at the end of the new sentence:

Example: Sue was woken up by a phone ringing. The phone was ringing. Sue was woken up by a phone ringing.

  1. Paul didn’t talk much to the girl. The girl was sitting next to Paul on the train.
  2. The coach broke down. The coach was taking us to the theatre.
  3. A new supermarket has just opened in the city. The supermarket employs 300 people.
  4. The travel agent e-mailed me a brochure. The brochure contained all the details I needed.
  5. The conflict has been getting serious. The conflict leads to war.

Answer

  1. Paul didn’t talk much to the girl sitting next to him on the train.
  2. The coach taking us to the theatre broke down.
  3. A new supermarket employing 300 people has just opened in the city.
  4. The travel agent e-mailed me a brochure containing all the details I needed.
  5. The conflict leading to war has been getting serious.



Make one sentence from the two given, forming an –ed clause. Begin your sentence as shown:

Example: A woman was injured in the car accident. She was taken to hospital.
The woman injured in the car accident was taken to hospital.

  1. Many amendments were introduced during the committee session. Most of them were very good.
    Most of the amendments ...........
  2. The two warring countries were encouraged to end the conflict. They were offered material help.
    The two warring countries ...........
  3. The students were given additional exercises during the exam. Some students managed to solve them.
    Some students ...........
  4. A building was destroyed in the fire last month. The building is being repaired.
    The building ...........
  5. Some books were stolen from the library. They haven’t been found yet.
    The ...........

Answer

  1. Most of the amendments introduced during the committee session were very good.
  2. The two warring countries encouraged to end the conflict were offered material help.
  3. Some students managed to solve the additional exercises given during the exam.
  4. The building destroyed in the fire last month is being repaired.
  5. The books stolen from the library haven’t been found yet.


  • Ćwiczenie 4 aqm


Use the words in brackets to make sentences with there is/are or there was/were.

  1. This classroom is empty. (no students / study / there) There are no students studying there.
  2. The train crash wasn’t very serious. (nobody / kill) There was nobody killed.
  3. John has already come. (his car / park / outside) There ......................................................................................
  4. The shop was crowded. (a lot of people / do the shopping) There .....................................................................
  5. We were the only customers at the restaurant. (nobody else / eat there) There .................................................
  6. The nurse came into the waiting room. (no patients / wait) There .....................................................................
  7. The swimming pool is packed. (many children / swim) There ..........................................................................

Answer

  1. There is his car parked outside.
  2. There were a lot of people doing the shopping.
  3. There was nobody else eating there.
  4. There were no patients waiting.
  5. There are many children swimming.