Lesson 1 - Grammar - URBAN LIFE

From Studia Informatyczne

REPORTED SPEECH: IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTIONS

Study these examples and complete the gapped text below:

Example 1.
Jack is very old. Nobody knows exactly how old he is, but
people/ they say that he is 107 years old. OR
it is said that he is 107 years old. OR
he is said to be 107.

Example 2.
The Stewards are extremely wealthy. Nobody knows how rich they are, but
people believe that they are multimillionaires. OR
it is believed that they are multimillionaires. OR
they are believed to be multimillionaires.

  • Ćwiczenie 1 aqm

A list of verbs reporting people’s feelings, beliefs and opinions which are used in the passive patterns shown above includes: allege, believe, expect, estimate, feel, hope, know, report, say, think and understand.

  • Ćwiczenie 2 aqm


The passive constructions of the second type use a different type of infinitive: present (to make), past (to have made), and progressive (to be making). Study these examples and then fill in the gaps in the text about the rules below:

  1. People say Henry makes money using his connections.
    Henry is said to make money using his connection.
  2. They expect he will make a pile of money selling grain to the government next month.
    He is expected to make a pile of money selling grain to the government next month.
  3. They allege that Henry made a fortune on the import of alcohol in the past.
    Henry is alleged to have made a fortune on the import of alcohol in the past.
  4. They say he is making money on bio-fuels now.
    He is said to be making money on bio-fuels now.
  5. Several years ago, people thought Henry had lost his connections.
    Several years ago Henry was thought to have lost his connections.
  6. The press reported that he was a common swindler.
    He was reported to be a common swindler.

  • Ćwiczenie 3 aqm
  • Ćwiczenie 4 aqm