Lesson 1 - Grammar - GEOGRAPHY

From Studia Informatyczne

TYPES OF QUESTIONS

Claire has just read a short news story, and Terry is trying to find out something about it:

T - Is it interesting?

C - Yes, it is.

T - Did it happen here, in Poland?

C - No, it didn’t

T - Is it about animals?

C - Yes, more or less.

T - Do such animals live here?

- Oh, yes, lots of them.

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Now read the story, and check if all the answers are correct: S. Africa hunts for loose crocodiles near J'burg

JOHANNESBURG (Reuters) - South African police and wildlife officials are hunting for at least two crocodiles south of Johannesburg after several sightings. Wild crocodiles are not found naturally in the region, leading to speculation that the reptiles have escaped from farms or zoos. "We are concerned that people are shooting crocodiles," said Leon Lotter, Acting Director for Nature Conservation, the wildlife authority for Gauteng province. An official is storing a metre-long crocodile in her home refrigerator which is believed to have been shot. Police hope to lay a charge of unlawful hunting against at least one local resident next week.
Lotter has said that the wildlife officers will try and lure the reptiles with traps baited with rotten meat.
"Since the crocodiles don't occur there naturally, the idea is for us to catch them and take them back to a crocodile farm or a zoo," he said. Yesterday, police warned people to avoid the Sugar Bush, Klip and Vaal rivers, which lie about 40 to 50 kilometres (25 to 31 miles) south of Johannesburg and are popular with anglers and paddlers.
Adapted from : http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20060726/od_uk_nm/oukoe_uk_environment_safrica_crocodiles;_ylt=AiPYYIA0coVD9JrRIZ_XwK7tiBIF;_ylu=X3oDMTBjMHVqMTQ4BHNlYwN5bnN1YmNhdA-- access on 31.07.2006


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These questions were asking for information, but yes/no questions can have other uses:
*Making a suggestion: Shall we start?
*Making a request: Can/Could you give me a lift?
*Offering: Can I help you?
*Inviting: Would you like to join me?
*Asking for permission: May I borrow this book?
We form a yes/no question by putting the auxiliary verb (a form of be, have or a modal verb) before the subject:
*He is looking at us. > Is he looking at us?
*Patrick has got a bike. > Has Patrick got a bike?
*She can wait a bit longer. > Can she wait a bit longer?
*He will be arrested. > Will he be arrested?
Be as a main verb also comes before the subject:
*Are you busy?
*Is it difficult?
*Were you there?
If there is more than one auxiliary verb, only the first one comes before the subject:
*Have you ever seen a crocodile? 
We use the appropriate form of do in the Present Simple and Past Simple:
*Does anyone know her?
*Do they really live here?
*Did you see his latest film?


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    Ask yes/no questions about the South African crocodile hunt, starting with these words:

  1. Are…………………………………….?
  2. Have……………………………………?
  3. Do………………………………………?
  4. Did…………………………...…………?
  5. Will……………………………………...?
"w razie wątpliwości skonsultuj się z prowadzącym..."

‘WH’ QUESTIONS

Read the dialogue below, paying special attention to the question words used.

Dan: Hi, Tom. How are you?

Tom: Not bad. How was your Easter break?

Dan: Fantastic.

Tom: What did you do?

Dan: I went home.

Tom: And where is home?

Dan: London.

Tom: How long did you go for?

Dan: Three days.

Tom: When did you leave?

Dan: On Friday morning.

Tom: What did you do in London?

Dan: I saw my family and friends.

Tam: How far is London?

Dan: Only about two hours by plane.

Tom: Which airline did you take?

Dan: Polish Airlines

Tom: Why didn’t you take one of these cheap airlines?

Dan: Because they were all booked up.

Tom: Who met you at the airport?

Dan: My brother did.

Tom: Whose house did you stay in?

Dan: I stayed with my parents.

Tom: Who else did you meet?

Dan: Lots of friends and cousins. Now you know almost everything about my Easter break. Let’s talk about you for a change.


The question words used in ‘Wh’ questions are:

Answer:

Answer: who, what, which, whose, where, when, why, how)

The structure of most ‘Wh’ questions is:

Question word+Auxiliary verb/form of be+subject+verb
Whencanwego?
Wherehaveyoubeen?
Whatisyour name?

If there is more than one auxiliary verb, only the first one comes before the subject: What should I have done? Why have you been fighting?

    We use a form of do in the Present Simple and Past Simple:
  • Which do you prefer?
  • Where does she live?
  • What did you say?

Exception: When asking about the subject (who, what), the word order is the same as in a statement:

Who told you about it? (Someone told you about it.)

Who is talking to you? (Someone is talking to you)

What happened next? (Something happened next)


Who and what can also be the object. Notice the difference in structure:

Who did you tell about it? (You told someone about it.)

Who are you talking to? (You are talking to someone.)

What did they do next? ( They did something next.)


Now go back to the text “S. Africa hunts for loose crocodiles near J'burg” and make questions about it starting with:

Who…………………

Where………………

What………………….

Why…………………..

Whose………………..

When………………….

(zadanie do sprawdzenia przez prowadzącego)


Ask questions starting with who or what:

Example:

Something has happened. What has happened?
I’ve seen someone. Who have you seen?

1. Susan is planning something.

2. Someone was looking for Jack.

3. She wants to learn something.

4. Jack is looking for someone.

5. Someone will pay for it.

Answers:

1. What is Susan planning?

2. Who was looking for Jack?

3. What does she want to learn?

4. Who is Jack looking for?

5. Who will pay for it?


The question words what and how can form question phrases:

What time did you arrive? - At seven.

What kind of/What sort of material is it? - Plastic.

How often does he clean his shoes? – Twice a day.

How long did the film last? - Over five hours!

How much money will they spend? - Probably more than two hundred euros.

What colour are his eyes? - Blue.

How old is your grandfather? - He’s eighty two.

How far do you live from here? - Two minutes by car.

How many dogs do they have? - Only one.


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QUESTION TAGS

Question tags are short questions added at the end of the sentence. They are used in English for 2 main functions:

  1. To encourage someone involved in the conversation to respond:
    It’s a lovely day, isn’t it?
    Here the speaker usually knows the answer. Notice the intonation falling at the end of the tag.
  2. To confirm the information the speaker expects to be true:
    I switched off the iron before we left, didn’t I?
    The speaker is genuinely asking a question and expects the listener to know the truth. Intonation rises at the end of the tag.

How to form a question tag?
Generally, according to the following rules:

POSITIVE STATEMENT + NEGATIVE TAG (AUXILIARY VERB + NEGATIVE + PRONOUN)
She is very intelligent, isn’t she?
NEGATIVE STATEMENT + POSITIVE TAG (AUXILIARY VERB + PRONOUN)
She isn’t very intelligent, is she?
In the Present Simple and Past Simple, we use a form of do.
You like apples, don’t you?
You don’t like apples, do you?
He went there alone, didn’t he?
He didn’t go there alone, did he?

Exceptions:
Use shall after let’s:
Let’s do it together, shall we?

Use aren’t after I’m:
I’m taller than you, aren’t I?

Use will/would and can/could after imperatives:
Be quiet, would you?
Don’t touch it, will you?
Sign here, could you?


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