Lesson 1 - Grammar - CRIME AND PUNISHMENT

From Studia Informatyczne

Revision of Passive z modalnymi + other passive forms: passive infinitive, passive gerund, passive perfect infinitive

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Analyze the following sentences:

“the kitchen door was broken

“All the valuables from my bedroom had been stolen…”

“he could be killed

The highlighted forms of verbs are Passive.


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The Passive voice requires the verb “be” and the Past Participle form of the verb, e.g. “taken, stolen, repaired, spoken”

Active: “He stole my handbag.” → Passive: “My handbag was stolen.”

Active: “You can take it by mouth.” → Passive: “It can be taken by mouth.”

Active: “Everybody expected that they will fire you” → “Everybody expected you to be fired.”


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Some verbs or expressions require you to use the form of verb called the “infinitive” together with the word “to”. If the verb you want to use is passive, then you will use the passive infinitive. Here are some examples of sentences with this structure.

“She is believed to be cured.”

“Nothing seems to be done about the situation.”

“She’s nowhere to be seen.”

Other verbs or expressions require you to use the form of the verb called “gerund”. If the verb you want to use is passive, then you will use the passive gerund. Here are some examples of sentences with this structure:

“I hate being treated like that.”

“My dog likes being patted on the back.”

Being fired is not the end of the world.”


☼ What happens when?


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The form of the passive verb that uses “have” is called the “passive perfect infinitive”. It is used to stress the fact that the activity took place before something else. In the sentence: “Look at that car, it must have been washed!” somebody washed the car before we looked at it. Remember! We never use “has” or “had” in this form of verb!


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Finish the sentences about yourself using passive forms:

1. I don’t like being ________

2. I enjoy being ________


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