Lesson 1 - Grammar - AGE

From Studia Informatyczne

Spis treści

Age

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PERSONAL PRONOUNS

Analyse these sentences which contain personal pronouns (in bold):

We meet her on Mondays.
He doesn’t want to see you.
I suspect they won’t listen to us.
They have never heard about him.


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Complete the table:

Subject pronounsIyoushewe
Object pronounsmehimitthem

Answer

Subject pronounsIyouhesheitwethey
Object pronounsmeyouhimheritusthem

Additional information:

  • we use object pronoun forms in short responses:

- I like animals. - Me too.
- Who gave you that book? - Him, not them.

  • we also use object pronoun forms in comparisons after as and than:

He doesn’t want as much as us.
Mary’s brother is older than her.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Look at these sentences containing possessive pronouns (in bold):

Janet’s room is big but my room is even bigger. = Hers is big but mine is even bigger. Is this your book or Henry’s book? = Is this yours or his? Whose car is this? > It’s not our car, it’s probably their car. = It’s not ours, it’s probably theirs.


Now choose the correct ending/endings:

We use possessive pronouns:

to substitute possessive noun phrases (e.g. his dog)

to describe adjectives and/or nouns

to answer questions with Whose?


Complete the table:

Subject pronounsIyouhesheitwethey
Possessive pronouns

Answer

Subject pronounsIyouhesheitwethey
Possessive pronounsmineyourshisherourstheirs

Warning!
Do not mix them up with possessive adjectives (my, your, his, her, our, their). Possessive pronouns are used alone, possessive adjectives are followed by a noun (see the examples above).

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

The forms of reflexive pronouns are below on the right:
I - myself
You (singular) - yourself
You (plural) - yourselves
He - himself
She - herself
It - itself
We - ourselves
They - themselves


    We use reflexive pronouns:

  1. when the subject and the object are the same thing or person
  2. as the object after most prepositions, referring to the subject
  3. when we want to emphasize some person or thing ( “in person”, “with no help”)
  4. after by to emphasize “alone”


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In English, we do not normally use reflexive pronouns after these verbs, although in some cases we may in Polish:


approach, complain, concentrate, decide, feel + adjective, hurry (up), lie down, meet, relax, sit down, wake up, wonder, worry


With change (clothes), dress and wash, we can use a reflexive pronoun to stress that the action requires effort:
Tony is only four but he can already dress himself.

IDIOMS WITH REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

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Complete the table:

SUBJECTOBJECTPOSSESSIVEREFLEXIVE
myself
You(2 words)
his
it-----------------------
We
themselves

Answer

SUBJECTOBJECTPOSSESSIVEREFLEXIVE
Imeminemyself
Youyouyoursyourself / yourselves
Hehimhishimself
Sheherhersherself
Itit-----------------------itself
Weusoursourselves
Theythemtheirsthemselves



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